Underground/underwater-based observatories

Underground/underwater-based observatories are the neutrino observatories, which explore the non-electromagnetic window to the Universe – the neutrino emission of the Cosmos. The largest one is the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, built at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica. Its thousands of detectors are distributed in a one cubic kilometer volume under the thick polar ice. And the largest underwater neutrino observatory is ANTARES (Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and Abyss environmental RESearch), whose hundreds of sensors are placed at a depth of about 2.5 km in the Mediterranean sea.